LACAENA

Afissa-Lacaena
THE DIACHRONY* OF THE HOMERIC HELLENE (THE GREEK WOMAN)
THROUGH THE SPARTAN WOMAN, LACAENA
*(diachrony = the hability to evoluate endlessly throug time)


The word “art” derives from the root ΤΕΚ, as does the verb «Tikto» [to give birth]. According to the historian Curtius, the words Tekton, Tokos, Tekmeromai, Teknon[he who edifies, interest rate, to infer, progeny] originate from this root.

According to the Academician Mr. Kon. Tsatsos, “the connection of art with the myth is brought about magnificently and plethoricly in the Hellenic world. The mythic world, which was shaped in Homeric Greece, constitutes one of the main pedestals of the art and civilization of Europe, as well as of all the other countries in the world”.

The distinguished professor of Classic Letarature Ioannis Kakridis says that «whenever we wish to ascertain the ideals of a nation, we should not only study its historical course on earth; it will be much more helpful to deal with its mythology. So, the occupation with myth allows us to get to know the intellectual history of the Greek people, as well as their character”.

Ancient Greeks endowed gods and heroes with beauty; no other people in the world cherished beauty as much as them. In women, goddesses and mortals alike, the glorification of beauty was common, because beauty was considered then one of the main virtues of a woman. Some characterizations, such as «καλή, περικαλλής» [beautiful, sublime], or praises concerning her hair, «Kallikomosκαι euplokamos» [having beautiful hair and fine braids], or her eyes, «Voopis» [ox-eyed], the face, «Kallipareios» [having beautiful cheeks], or the limbs, «Leukolenos, Kallisphyros» [having white forearms, having fine ankles], etc., are attached to many women in our ancient texts. Homer describes women with great respect and endows them with many virtues. The status of woman in Homeric Greece was much higher than the one in the Greece of Pericles. Through the core of the Trojan War, we can see the significance woman’s beauty had for the heroic world. As Durant says in his “History of Civilization”, “Helen’s beauty embellishes a war. Without the woman, the Homeric hero would have been nothing but a boor. She is the one who teaches him civility, idealism and gentleness”. Such a Homeric woman, then, famous for her beauty, is Lacaena. The woman that was born in «Kalligynaika Lakedaemona» [Lacedaemon, the land of fair women], as Homer says. The woman for whom Pythia prophesied to the Aegeans that she was one of the three most beautiful things in the world. Later on, ancient tragedy turned her into a “prima dona” and finally into a diachronic Homeric Hellene.  

I believe that the Diachronic valuew of the Greek antiquity imrose to us Greeks not to limit ourselfs in a theoretical approach of these values through historical flashbacks and scientific analyses, but to use their teachings in contemporary life, and, if possible, to take a further step, by converting the past into a source of inspiration and a guide of pioneer creation. This is why I think that the most ideal way for me to present to you the diachronicness of the Homeric Lacaena, the woman-ornament of ancient times, is through the art of jewelry. You see, the jewel is not only a means of ornament, but also a diachronic object of art, connected with important moments of the people’s lives, and its study enriches our knowledge on the evolutionary course of culture. This object, which is so cherished in all eras, will be my pen in my effort to relate to you the Laconic Cycle of our Mythology, featuring Lacaena, the diachronic Homeric Hellene, who, by assuming various female forms, transforms into women-symbols, mythic, ideal or not, whose passage throughout the centuries makes them seem fresh, makes them look as if they are living among us, since we can identify in them parts of ourselves, of our souls.

0001-The-PenOur guide to this extraordinary journey will be the PEN, which symbolizes on one site the texts our ancestors have left to us, so that we can use them even today as sources of inspiration for new creations, and on the other the fact that the art of artistic jewelry can be another language for the communication of diachronic messages of the past to the woman of today. It is the first piece of the collection that will lead us, before our story begins, to a symbolic jewel, the diachronic Homeric Hellene, LACAENA.

01-002-LacaenaLACAENA is an ideal female being that gets incarnated through the telling of the myth and who assumes each time the form of a woman that is important for the myth’s development, due either to her symbolic significance, or to her leading role, or even to her status as the mother or the wife of an important hero.

Lacaena is the feminin of Lacon and means the woman of Laconia. Lacaenes were called the young maidens who represented the city of Sparta in the Hellenian celebrations. It was also the title of a Sophocles’ lost drama, portraying the theft by Odysseus and Diomedes of the Palladium, the sacred symbol of Athena, the patroness of Troy. The chorus consisted of the women accompanying Helen, and they were called the Lacaenes.

The jewel that represents the diachronic Homeric Hellene has the symbolic rhombus shape at its center, symbolizing the eternal female principle. Based on the lines of the central shape, the external frame starts to spread, because it suffocates and it wants to create a path of expansion, this being the chain that symbolizes the woman’s course from antiquity until today. We notice that the chain – this path – does not escape the rhombus’s lines, because each of the chain’s parts is a woman walking in the path of her evolution from the faraway past until our days.

Its lines are straight and austere. The jewel gives off an overall sense of strength and imposing presence, but it also has the allure of simplicity. It brings to mind Kandinsky’s words that, “the lines have a secret soul which is silent more often than it speaks”.

01-003-TaygetiSo our narration begins : Once upon a time, in ancien Laconia, the sky embraced with his divine fire the nebulous summit of the mountain Taygetos and so the union of Zeus with the nymphe TAYGETE, one of the seven Pleiades or Atlantides, give birth to Lacaedemon. According to Hesychius, her name means great mountain (greatly built), and this is perhaps the reason why the most beautiful mountain of Laconia took the name of Taygetos, which ancient people imagined as the living place of gods and spirits.

In ancient societies, rough stones had a purely symbolic significance, and were also thought of as the lodgings of gods and spirits. This is why the jewel consists of these elements: the small disparate stones that symbolize the mountain peaks of Taygetos, and have on them a multitude of dark spots (patinas) that represent the mountain caves, canyons and ravines.

Taygete symbolizes the imperious Homeric Lacaena who withstands all weathers. She stands head high, as it befits her, she knows how to withstand bad times, but also how to create incessantly, whenever circumstances allow it. She is a woman of pride who does not buckle under difficulties, and impose her personality on her environment thanks to the dynamic charm of her beauty.

01-004-Sparta-The river Eurotas, whose name means “wet place”, irrigated incessantly the land of Laconia witch become fertile and friendly to Lacaedemon. So he married SPARTA, the exquisite daughter of the Eurotas and Eurydice, and begins to cultivate the land ant taking her fruits. Sparta’s name means “sowing”, and is a symbol of fertility. Their union marks the beginning of a distinct culture, which, despite being so much underrated, continues even today to inspire those who venture to seek it..The jewel symbolizing Sparta is based on a seed that grows, bears fruit and gives birth to many more, which get united in a chain of evolution. It is the evolution of fertility at all possible levels where one can come across it, may it the body, the spirit, or the soul. This seed, multiplied, takes the form of the chain that twists softly round the neck, as if it was the land that will keep it alive for all eternity. It is like the newborn ideas, which grow and develop in suitable soil, like the newborns that rest securely and tenderly on their mothers until they can spread their own wings. The jewel as a whole symbolizes the mother (central theme), who embraces her children (links) with an uplift of the soul. It is Sparta, the sweet and quiet Lacaena, whose work shows when spring comes. It is a woman who considers the power of fertility a privilege, and the creation on any field of life a prerequisite for happiness and bliss. A woman who loves motherhood and seeks ways to make use of the creative powers within her.

yakinthosOne of the children of Lacaedemon and Sparta was the celebrated hero of Lacaedemonies, Amyclas, who built the same-name town, i.e. Amycles. He hade a grandson named HYACINTHUS who was renowned for his beauty and a beloved friend of Apollo. One day he was accidentally slain by the god in a discus-throwing contest. The flowers that sprouted from the spot where Hyacinthus died took his name and the Lacons established a celebrations in his honor, which took place every July and was called Hyacinthia.

01-005-Gorgophone-setSon of Amyclas and brother of Hyacinthus was the magnanimous – according to Hesiod – Periiris, who married the beautiful daughter of Perseus and Andromeda, Gorgophone. The name GORGOPHONE is one of the goddess Athena’s epithets, meaning “she who killed Gorgon”. Perseus gave this name to his daughter in order to pay homage to the goddess that helped him kill Medusa (Gorgon) and save Andromeda from the sea monster., .
Gorgophone was one of the prominent Lakaines of the Laconic Mythology. She is the first woman who, after the death of her husband Periiris, did not live in celibacy for the rest of her life, as was the tradition, but instead she married Oivalos, introducing for the first time matriarchal standards into the ancient world. This was something that became commonplace in later years. Furthermore, Gorgophone is the ancestress of most of the protagonists of the Laconic Mythology.

The jewel that represents her could have the classic oblong or round shape of the shield, since the myth owes its development to her. However, I chose to use this shape instead; it is a shape which is based on a parallelogram, so as to symbolize the great change Gorgophone brought about in women’s life with her second marriage, as well as in order to point out the determination and stability of her character. The pleats on the surface, as well as the abstract shapes aim at causing the reflection of light that disperses and dispels the evil. This is exactly what Athena’s shield did to Perseus’ hands. The patinas convey the sense of the past, upon which the future is built, a future that is rendered by the design’s modern lines. In this jewel, the maturity of tradition intertwines with the forcefulness of modernity, characterizing a woman who takes life into her own hands and opens up new roads and horizons not just for herself but also for the society in which she lives.

Gorgophone had Leucippus, Aphareas and Icarius with Periiris, and Tyndareus with Oivalos.
01-006-PenelopeIcarius united with the nymph Periboea and had the well-known PENELOPE. Her name originates from the word πηνίο, the “woof”, and it means “weaver” (according to Crusius, pini + lepo = she who unpicks the tapestry). She was the wife of the crafty Odysseus, the king of Ithaca, and according to Homer, she promised the suitors who were pushing her to marry one of them, that she would make her choice once she had finished weaving the tapestry that would be given as a gift to the new king. So, waiting with unwavering hope and patience for the return of her beloved Odysseus for ten whole years, she weaved all day, while at night she secretly unpicked what she had completed during the day, and as a consequence the tapestry was never complete.

The jewel is discreet and fine. The chain is knit by hand, just like the tapestry of the heroine it symbolizes. The intricate knitting bears the characteristics of the patience and perseverance its manufacture requires. The central subject matter, “wrapped” in red enamel, symbolizes the flame of the love Penelope is hiding into her heart, and it also portends the imminent joy of Odysseus’ return.

Penelope is the Homeric Hellene, a symbol of wifely fidelity and devotion. She is a woman with an endless patience and perseverance, and an unfailing power of hope, who withstands difficulties and pressures by third parties with sweetness, as well as slyness, until the fullness of time will vindicate her.
Icarius brother, Tyndareus, was driven away from Sparta by his stepbrother Hippocoon, and took refuge in Aetolia, where he married the beautiful daughter of king Thyestes, Leda. When Hercules slayed Hippocoon, he returned to Sparta, where he reigned along with Leda, with whom he had three daughters: Timandra, Philonoe and Clytemnestra.

Hesiod informs us that Tyndareus performed a sacrifice once to honor the gods, but he forgot Aphrodite, the goddess of beauty, and she became enraged and destroyed the family happiness of Tyndareus’ daughters. So, the robust Timandra married the king and hero of Tegea, Echemus, whom she later abandoned in order to marry Phyleus, the son of the king of Elis. Similarly with Timandra, the goddess’ revenge fell on Clytemnestra and Helen.

01-008-TimandraTIMANDRA, whose name means “to honor bravery”, married the king and hero of Tegea, Echemus, who killed Hercules’ son, Hyllas, in a fight. She later abandoned him to marry Phyleus, the son of Elis’ king Augeus. Hesiod refers to her as “Timandra the robust”.

The jewel’s design is classic and modern at the same time, lending it a sense of diachronicness. The wide opening of its two sides, combined with its characteristic simplicity indicates a forceful and free woman, robust not only in body but also in spirit. Because only a woman with a strong character could honor bravery, as her name denotes, and to determine her future with determination. The stones of sodalite that hold the jewel together, imply a certain cruelty that such a character can hide without causing any disharmony; this is why they embrace the jewel with their silver-gray sheens, that blend with the color of the metal, creating an aesthetically harmonious whole. She too is a forceful Lacaena who does not grumble, but who takes her life into her own hands and has the power to change course, if needed.
01-007-PhilonoeTimandra’s sister, PHILONOE, was a beautiful woman who, as her name denotes (friend + intellect), loved intellectual life. This tendency led her to remain chaste for all of her life and that is why the goddess of Chastity, Artemis, made her immortal after she died.

The jewel’s shape is not meaningless. It reminds the shape of a womb that was never fecundated. The pearls that decorate it, as symbols of chastity, and the soft color of the silver both amplify the subject matter’s symbolisms. Philonoe is a Lacaena – symbol of virtue with inner purity, intellectuality, and also simplicity, who conveys messages of kindness and love.
01-009-klytaimnystraSister of both the aforementioned was CLYTEMNESTRA, Agamemnon’s wife, with whom she had three children: Iphigenia, Electra and Orestes. Her name derives from klytos + mnaomai and it means, “she who seeks dignity”. She was no accidental woman, but rather a queen that life brought face-to-face with impossible situations. She did not have many grounds for loving Agamemnon, because before him she was married to the king of Pissa, Tantalus, against whom Agamemnon campaigned and whom he killed along with her newborn child. Then, he married Clytemnestra and later on, in order to sacrifice their daughter Iphigenia to the goddess Artemis so as for her to let the Greek ships to set sail for Troy, he deceived her by asking her to bring Iphigenia to Aulis in order to marry her to Achilles. However, Clytemnestra never forgave Agamemnon΄s actions and so, during his ten-year absence to Troy, she united with Aegisthus and they murdered Agamemnon as soon as he came back from Troy. Afterwards, she married Aegisthus, she made him king and she had three children with him: Erigone (Orestes’ concubine), Aletes and the second Helen.

Years later, Orestes, assisted by his friend Pylades, in order to take revange of his father’s deth, murdered Aegisthus and Clytemnestra, as well as her daughter Helen, and then fled, haunted by the Furies, and sought protection at the temple of Apollo at Delphi. Apollo instructed him to go to Athens and ask for the protection of Athena. Athena answered his petition and constituted a jury of senior Athenians in order to pass judgment on him. The jury, which was called Areopagus and tries people’s crimes ever since then, listened to the charges laid by the Furies, as well as Orestes’ defense counsel by the god Apollo, and then, despite the equality in the jurors’ votes, it decided to absolve Orestes, thanks to the favorable vote of Athena, who was presiding. Engels and Vahoeven believe that the above myth depicts the struggle of the time between the diminishing matriarchy and the rising patriarchy. The Furies are the defenders of the matriarchy, while Apollo and Athena defend the patriarchy. In the end, patriarchy won.

The impressive jewel has the splendor of a queen. The hard times in Clytemnestra’s life, as well as the cruelty she came through, could be rendered only with the harsh surface of the metal. The patinas on it symbolize the dark sides of her character, as well as her intrigues. The jewel symbolizes a forceful, impulsive and ambitious woman, who is vindictive when wronged and who does not shy from taking risks in order to reach her goals, which she pursues with strength of soul.
01-010-LedaZeus saw Clytemnestra’s mother, LEDA, one day while she was bathing in Eurotas, and he fell in love with her. In order to win her over, he asked for the help of Aphrodite, who transformed him into a swan, while she herself assumed the form of an eagle that gave chase to him. Zeus-swan sought refuge in Leda’s arms, and she embraced him with tenderness so as to protect him. From this embrace Leda laid two eggs. From the one egg Helen of Troy was born, and from the other the Dioscuri Twins. This unique love myth that has many versions, became a favorite subject matter for many great painters in the world. So, we see relevant paintings in various Museums and Galleries worldwide.

The shape of the jewel, inspired by the form of Zeus-swan, is a complex of softly curved lines that give the impression of two hugging swans, radiating the tenderness that characterize both their union and Leda herself. The metal, soft and smooth like the skin of the tender Lacaena who does not bathe only in Eurotas, but in the sunlight as well, shines. The chain that supports it brings to mind small pieces of Eurotas’ reeds, and its aesthetic completion is achieved with the decorative small discreet pearls. Leda is the representative type of the tender, protective and charming Lacaena, whom we will always meet throughout the centuries.

The Dioscuri Castor and Pollux were perhaps the best loved heroes of the Lacaedemons, who invoked them in war and regarded them as patrons of sailors. Pollux was immortal, while Castor was mortal. When Castor was killed in a battle with the Apharides Idas and Lynceus, Zeus took Pollux up to the sky, but he refused to accept immortality because of his brotherly love towards Castor, so Zeus gave him permission to share immortality with him. So, Pollux lived in the sky at daytime and Castor at night, symbolizing the alternation of the Sun and the Moon. They kidnapped and married two Lakaenes of rare beauty, the daughters of Leucippus. Castor took Hilaeira, and Pollux took Phoebe..

01-011-HilaeiraHILAEIRA, the daughter of Leucippus and Philodice, was Aphrodite’s priestess. Her name is another name for Selene (the Moon), and just like her, she is a bearer of change, a symbol of the world in progress, of resurrection, of immortality and of the cycles of eternity. The lozenge shape, that is the basis of the jewel’s main theme, symbolizes the eternal female principle, but, by opening up upwards, it shows the changes brought about in the cycle of eternity, as the shape is divided into more sections. It seems as if it changes forms and moods, just like the Moon. The jewel is made from silver, which is Selene’s symbolic metal, and its overall shape, austere and balanced, gives a direction, which, combined with the knitted chain, symbolizes the eternal motion towards a certain course, thus tracing the lines of destiny.

The jewel as a whole symbolizes a clever, restless woman with ceaseless pursuits, a woman who enjoys the variety in life and the constant change and renewal. Hilaeira is a Lacaena in possession of quality and knowledge, and she uses her brain in order to change everything for the best, following the course towards fulfillment, just like Selene before the full moon..

01-012-PhoebePHOEBE, Hilaeira’s sister, was Athena’s priestess and she became the wife of Pollux. Her name derives from "faos", that is “light”, and it means “Dawn”, another name of Eos. Phoebe was in love with everything young and bright. She had kidnapped many handsome young men for their beauty and their youth. The last one she kidnapped was Tithonos, and she asked Zeus to make him immortal, but she forgot to ask him to give Tithonos eternal youth as well. So, Tithonos started growing old and, being immortal in a great old age, he became known as the symbol of extreme old age. In the myth interpretation, Tithonos symbolizes the day that comes and goes.

The jewel resembles in part a cloud, and in part a happy embrace, ready to accept anything new. The gold element at its center symbolizes the light of dawn, which comes to drive away the night mist and the silver moonlight. The pearls that hold it together are the paths of the Moon that leaves, giving way to the new day.

Phoebe symbolizes the woman characterized by youth, not necessarily of the body, but of the soul, which radiates eternally. She radiates youth, she is not afraid of the new, she dares to renew, she is a pioneer and an innovator and, just like the dawn breaking every day, she brings something new and important in order to light with her own light the course of the world.

The sister of the Dioscuri Twins, HELEN, was the most beautiful women of all mortals. This is how Hesiod describes her :
«In form she looked like the golden Aphrodite,
and she had the sparkling eyes and the graceful movements of the Graces,
the black-eyed maid»

Her name means “eminent beauty” and she was the daughter of Zeus and Leda and grew up with a mortal father, Tyndareus. No mortal woman could outmatch her beauty and that is why all kings wanted her as their wife. The wise Tyndareus made them promise that if anyone would take her by force, then all the others would campaign against him in order to punish him. She chose the brave son of Atreus and brother of Agamemnon, Menelaus, who became king of Sparta after Tyndareus’ death, and she had a daughter with him, Hermione.

At the celebration of the gods in the cave of the centaur Heiron for the occasion of the wedding of the hero Peleus with the goddess Thetis, they forgot to invite Eris, the goddess of discord. She decided to take her revenge and took a golden apple, inscribed “to the most beautiful woman” on it and left it on the table, without anyone noticing her. The gods saw “Eris’ apple”. But who was the most beautiful goddess so as to give it to her? A great controversy flared up among the three goddesses: Hera, Athena and Aphrodite. Zeus, not wanting to be the judge, instructed Hermes and the goddesses to climb to the mount Ida, at the outskirts of Troy, where the decision as to who is the most beautiful would be made by the handsome son of the king Priamus, Paris, whom the people called Alexander (i.e. victor) thanks to his strength and bravery. However, Paris was indecisive. So, the goddesses started promising him great rewards. Hera promised to make him king of all Asia, Athena promised him glory and victory in wars and Aphrodite promised to give him the most beautiful of all mortal women, Helen, as his wife. Once Paris heard Aphrodite, he gave her the apple and proclaimed her the most beautiful among the goddesses. So, deceived by the gods’ frolicking, and bewitched by the Lacaena’s fatal beauty, he kidnapped her with the aid of Aphrodite, and then the suitors, true to their promise, campaigned against Troy and seized it after a ten-year long bloody siege. The Laconians deified Helen after her death and they established the Helenian celebrations in her honor.

01-013-HelenThe jewel is based on a crown-shaped theme, because Helen was a queen. The chain that holds it together consists of graceful lacy elements symbolizing the femininity and the grace, and of other solid elements, which are decorated with engravings, like the central theme. These engravings symbolize the extent to which this myth (or reality?) marked the world. Finally, the small beads of garnet, the stone that evokes passionate love, decorate symbolically the jewel, bound like bunches of grape, from which wine is produced, the drink of inebriation and love, which was the cause for the Trojan war.

Helen is a symbol. She is the symbol of the true, natural beauty, to which even the gods bow. She is also the symbol of the femme fatale, whose passage triggers off events and situations that mark History indelibly.
01-014-HermionieThe daughter of Helen, HERMIONE, was as beautiful as her mother, and she married Achilles’ son, Neoptolemus. However, he favored his slave Andromache (Hector’s wife) over her, so the frustrated Lacaena instigated the matricide Orestes to murder Neoptolemus and afterwards she married him. From their marriage Tissamenus was born; it was during his reign that the Dorians descended in Peloponnese, signaling the end of the Laconic Mythology.

The jewel consists of a medallion whose shape has robustness, volume, plasticity and which livens up even more thanks to the two metallic colors, that contrast with each other, just like the sentiments Hermione experienced. The dark graphite color symbolizes her sorrows. At first, when her mother fled with Paris and then, when her husband favored the widow of Hector over her. The light golden color symbolizes her life’s great changes, which she triggered off with determination. Leaving her sorrow behind and living now in the light of joy, she moves on to a different life, which she herself determines; furthermore, she experiences the happiness that was denied to her in the past. The chain with the double elements united symbolizes her ultimate union with Orestes.

Hermione symbolizes the clever and charming woman who does not put up with insults and does not forgive contempt. A woman that has the gift of seduction and knows how to use it with determination and efficiency in order to handle life’s problems.
11-003-PhenomiridesThis is where our myth ends, giving its place to History. The History that our Homeric Greek woman is called to continue with a steady pace, looking far and ahead in the future. A characteristic jewel of this joining between the myth and the historical reality is the jewel LACAENA PHENOMIRIS ( showing the thigh).

I designed it based on the description of Xenophon, who says that the Greeks, namely the Athenians, called the Lakaenes “Phenomirides”, because when exercising they wore a low-necked knee-high tunic, unstitched on the side, held together with pins, which was called «peronitis or peronatris». So, when they walked or run, the sides of the tunic lifted up in the air and their thighs showed. These women with the free walk, whose body was never swaddled, had a similarly free spirit and soul and they taught the ideal of freedom. An ideal that they passed on through their actions to us. A legacy that is an invaluable jewel of the Greek History.

The seductive, golden mantle of Myth enveloped the Homeric Hellene and made her immortal. Perhaps because the core of the Myth looks like the design of the destiny. Perhaps because, as Jacqueline de Romilly says, «the myths manage to escape the time that attempts to masquerade them, because they have the value of signs and symbols”. So, the Homeric Lacaena, since the dawn of History, became the woman-symbol, became the heroine who suffered the fate that sculpted her. She is the Homeric Hellene who got to know the touch of gods and the sorrow of people. She is the Homeric Hellene who never resigned and who took life into her own hands. She is wonderful, beautiful, charming, as modern as us, and we follow and develop her, without even realizing it. She is the inexhaustible source of inspiration. She is an Eurotas that flows even today in our veins. She is a Taygetos that sets divine goals for us.

She is the LACAENA, THE DIACHRONIC HOMERIC HELLENE
even though she is only 3.000 years old.

If you want to change the length of the chosen pendant, if you want the earrings to have a clip, or if you want the jewel that you chose to be gold plated or in the color of silver from which it is made of, please let us know by sending an e-mail to This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it

Also contact us for delivery time. The jewels are handmade and not manufactured and produced in a limited number. If there are any in stock, they are delivered within 48 hours, otherwise within 15 days at the latest.